Lake Victoria – Africa’s largest fresh water lake
Lake Victoria has a surface area of about 68,000 square kilometres 85 metres deep and also bordered by Kenya and Tanzania. Lake Victoria is a large and shallow lake that to all intents and purposes feels more like a sea. Indeed, while the renowned Muslim cartographer, Muhammad al-Idris, had already by the 10th century mapped its shores reasonably accurately, correctly attributing it as the source of the Nile, Lake Victoria’s size, position and function would go onto confuse many a European traveller, even after John Hanning Speke’s (re)discovery, naming and verification of al-Hadris’s claim.
David Livingston also went in search of it, but was bamboozled by the lake’s size, and is supposed to have pushed too far west, into the Congo. The matter, of course, was finally settled by Stanley, whose first hand evidence proved beyond any doubt that al-Hadrid and Speke were correct.
Lake Victoria is about 400,000 years old, its depression formed as Congo destined rivers were blocked by tectonic plate movement resulting in a slight rise in the earth’s crust (in the vicinity of what is today its western shoreline), Lake Victoria is fed by a host of medium sized west flowing rivers, and by the east flowing Kagera River.
Apart from the source of the White Nile at Jinja, Uganda, its only major outflow is Katonga River, which begins at Lukaya, also in Uganda. Traditionally, the lake has been protected by a buffer of wetlands, but farming practices and population growth have seen these greatly reduced, and increased nutrient heavy (pollution, pesticides etc) runoff has seen a decrease in the lake’s volumes of oxygenated water, the knock-on effect being serious.
As well as the volume of water received by river, Lake Victoria is significantly influenced by direct precipitation. Its rains provided by the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, and to a much lesser degree by those brought by the Congo airstream, and large enough to generate its own rains, a great deal of the lake’s water gain is through precipitation.
Going the other way, a staggering 80% of water loss is via evaporation. It is a finally balanced eco-system, and such is the lake’s vulnerability (to both natural and manmade phenomena), a combination in the last few years of slight falls in rainfall, hydroelectric damming practices in Uganda and the drainage and river damaging influences of 30 million people large has seen water levels substantially reduced.
Despite this, Lake Victoria continues to support a range of fish species, amphibians, reptiles, birds and animals. As with Tanganyika and Malawi, the other two African Great Lakes, Lake Victoria is home to great numbers of endemic cichlids, though the introduction of exotic species, in particular the Nile Perch and the Nile Tilapia, both a source of commercial and sport fishing activity, has seen numbers severely decimated – particularly in the latter half of the twentieth century. The loss has contributed to the lake’s many problems.
These keystone species, particularly the genus Haplochromoni, its ability to recycle organic matter a crucial aspect of the lake’s ability to self-clean, are considered vital to the lake’s well-being, and the extinction of a significant number of species is said to be a major contributing factor to the water hyacinth invasion. This said, if the exotic introductions reached unsustainable levels in the late 1970, then subsequent over-fishing (in the late 1990s) sent both Nile perch and tilapia into decline, resulting in a staggered recovery in cichlid stock. In short, things are better than they were 20 years ago, though still nothing like they were before the 1960s. Other non-fish related wildlife includes crocodile, hippo, elephant, buffalo, chimpanzee and wildebeest, though given the high levels of human activity, the mammals appear in low numbers. Situated on a major migratory route, and home to many a resident species, Lake Victoria (and satellite lakes) also supports high numbers of bird species.
Lake Victoria supports a plethora of wildlife. The region of Lake Victoria is home to many mammal species, including the hippopotamus, the marsh mongoose, and the giant otter shrew.
It also contains reptiles such as the Nile crocodile and the African helmeted turtle, and many crustaceans, including 4 different species of freshwater crab. Lake Victoria contains over 200 species of fish and the haplochromine cichlid is the main endemic group. However, many species have become extinct in the last 50 years and scientists estimate that Lake Victoria’s indigenous fish species have decreased by 80%.
Tourist attractions on Lake Victoria
Ngamba Island Chimpanzee sanctuary
Located around 27 kilometres south-east of Entebbe, Ngamba Island is one of Lake Victoria’s most popular islands. Ngamba Island cares for 50 orphaned chimpanzees which have been rescued across East Africa. The sanctuary is run by The Chimpanzee Trust, an NGO which aims to sustainably protect chimpanzees and offer captive care for chimps which cannot survive in the wild. You can choose between half and full day trips to the sanctuary and chimp enthusiasts can even spend the night at Ngamba Eco-lodge.
Located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria, this wetland is Uganda’s most important birding site. Mabamba swmap is home to over 300 bird species, including the enigmatic Shoebill which is the most sought bird in Africa.
Birding in Mabamba is a great experience. You will climb aboard a traditional canoe, and a local guide will weave through the maze of channels whilst educating you about the local ecosystem and the best photography spots. You have the highest chances of seeing the Shoebill in the early morning, but you can also expect to see other remarkable species like the African marsh harrier.
The Ssese Islands are a secret paradise of white sandy beaches and sapphire waters in the north-west of Lake Victoria. This unique archipelago of 84 islands is unmissable for adventurers who want to unwind in a remote utopia. Bugala Island is the most developed of the Ssese Islands, and it is easily accessible from Entebbe via ferry. You can enjoy a range of activities at Bugala, from quad biking, to fishing and birding.
Banda Island is more remote, and the island has a beautiful simplicity. Escape other travellers and savour meditative walks along the beach, immersing yourself in your idyllic surroundings.